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Protective factors in the family and school domains include strong intrafamilial bonds, positive family dynamics, and positive attachment to school.

In the community and environmental domains, strongly held adult values antithetical to substance use constitute protective factors, as do clearly communicated and consistently enforced regulations concerning use.

Strategies designed to increase knowledge and convey information about the risks and dangers of drug use are generally recognized to be failures, in part because of the lack of association between knowledge and use. "Alcohol Initiation Outcomes of Universal Family-Focused Preventive Interventions: One-and Two-Year Follow-Ups of a Controlled Study." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 3111. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, News and Information Services. Among HIV positive thirteen to nineteen year-old females who had not developed AIDS, 49 percent of the cases were associated with exposure through sexual contact, 7 percent through injection drug use, 1 percent through blood exposure, and 43 percent through a risk not reported or identified.

Indeed, all largely didactic approaches to prevention education, such as Project "Drug Abuse Resistance Education" (Project DARE), are widely understood to be ineffective, especially if they concentrate on long-term risks. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Among males in the same age group, 50 percent were associated with male to male sex, 5 percent with injection drug use, 5 percent with both male to male sex and injection drug use, 5 percent with hemophilia or coagulation disorder, 7 percent with heterosexual exposure, 1 percent with blood exposure, and 28 percent with an unreported or unidentified risk.

In the family domain, ATOD use has been associated with familial substance use, poor parenting practices including harsh or inconsistent discipline, poor intrafamilial communication, and inadequate supervision and monitoring of children's behaviors and peer associations.

Unfortunately, relatively little is also known about prevention on college campuses. "Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Implications for Substance Abuse Prevention." Psychological Bulletin 1105. Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data indicate that about half of all high school students report having engaged in intercourse at least once.Other preventive measures that target youth drivers include "zero tolerance" laws linking evidence of alcohol on the breath with suspension or revocation of driving privileges. Given the long latency period between infection and symptoms, most of these individuals were infected as adolescents.The results of two decades of evaluative research have yielded considerable information suggesting that a number of approaches to adolescent ATOD use prevention do not work. More than 126,000 cases of AIDS among individuals ages twenty to twenty-nine had been diagnosed in the U. Estimates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adolescents range from 112,000 to 250,000 in the United States, although actual prevalence is not known because representative data are not available.A variety of strategies have demonstrated effectiveness in preventing or reducing ATOD use.Project Alert, described by Phyllis Ellickson and colleagues in a 1993 article, and Life Skills Training Program, described by Gill Botvin and colleagues in 1995, are the two most-prevalent effective classroom-based-curricula.

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